CT scan of 15 year old female shows large mass lesion (arrow head) in the left kidney pushing the aorta and IVC to right side and tumour is extending in to left renal vein (short arrow), IVC and into the right atrium (long arrow).
Vascular extension to the vena cava occurs in 4% of Wilms tumor cases and can reach the right atrium in up to 1%. When this happens the thrombus is usually not adherent to the vessel wall, and there is blood flow around it. Preoperative chemotherapy can cause thrombus regression and even resolution. If the thrombus persists after chemotherapy, surgery will be a challenge. On the other hand, if the thrombus invades the vessel wall, its removal may not be feasible. In this situation cavectomy is a good surgical strategy because it provides complete resection. The prerequisite for cavectomy is the absence of blood flow in the vena cava on preoperative Doppler ultrasonography.